Wes Waugh’s Current Palette of Watercolor Pigments

There are so many brands and qualities of watercolor pigment it is staggering! While it is most important to invest in lightfast, name-brand professional paint, you will still find many different characteristics among pigments that go by the same or similar common names. Manufacturers use different binders, raw pigments from varying sources, and create mixtures with unique company recipes. One of the things I seem most particular about, is how the paint “feels” regarding workability and preparing washes, etc. For example, too much binder often results in an oily quality and weak adhering strength to the paper. Different brands may also vary in the strength (intensity) of the hue in its pure form.

All of this said, if you follow the work of different artists you will soon come to find that most have a preference, or often a “majority” preference for one manufacturer. I have been working as an American Journey (Cheap Joe’s Art Stuff) Ambassador for quite a few years now, so in a sense I grew up as an artist trying many different professional brands carried by Cheap Joe’s.  I watched the company grow and over the years develop their own brand of American Journey Watercolor. I occasionally got handed a new color and was asked to provide a response to Joe after test driving it. I know the quality of pigments and thought that goes into the A.J. pigment products, and feel great about recommending them strongly and using them primarily. You will notice a few other brands on my palette for certain colors. These are pigments by other top manufacturers that I particularly like for the handling qualities or the “special effect” that I find they may offer in certain situations. For example the honey binder used in Cinerous Blue (Sennelier) produces a unique Sky effect in a very wet wash. You would have to try it to see what I mean.

Please use the guide below as a reference, and download a PDF or JPEG for printing out at the links provided. Also, feel free to email me with questions at Beartrailstudio@gmail.com

Open High Res JPG Wes Palette

Open  High Res PDF Wes Palette


The New Palette / Watercolor: Wet-into-Wet Demystified (full article)

PaletteMag_CoverWEB“All knowledge essential to the painting of a fine watercolor can be obtained from books, many book; teachers; and the subscription to the truth of the pragmatic theory that doing is part of the knowing.” … Edgar A. Whitney

The beautiful qualities of wetness, gradations and colors precipitating together on that wonderful white paper are responsible for reeling many of us in to the medium of watercolor. For me, it has been a lasting fascination for over thirty years. When I first tried my hand however, I quickly realized I had much to learn about how water and pigment work together on this surface to create something that I would be pleased with. Getting results that remotely resembled what I was hoping for seemed elusive. After quite a few years, I began to understand it much more as a balancing act than a conquest; the art of giving deference to the medium, interjecting action when required, and most importantly, carefully observing my successes and mistakes along the way. While this may sound tedious and less than encouraging to a watercolor newcomer, I like to instill the belief that while there is no by-pass, there are quite a few teachable and demonstrable concepts that can lessen the levels of frustration early in the game. 


Wet-into-Wet, why bother? We know there are many approaches to watercolor that don’t require us working on squirrely wet paper. Beautiful paintings abound in books, magazines and juried exhibitions resulting from glazing on dry paper, or mingling with watercolor in a preplanned or “wet as you go” fashion. The wet-into-wet thing is personal, and simply a choice. As an east coast painter enamored with Appalachian mountain landscapes, I find that it enables me to translate the atmospheric (and often very humid) mood and feeling of a temperate rain forest better than any other method. Many who sign up for my workshops express a similar desire to learn this technique for these reasons. I have felt obliged to come up with a better way teach it other than that of trial and error, “hang in there, eventually, you will get it!”. Having taught Learning Skills and Strategies coursework to college students for many years, I relied on what seemed to help them synthesize complex or nuanced concepts into useful and retainable information; real learning, so to speak. Relatable visual models and analogies seemed to be a key component, and these could often be personalized for even stronger recall.  

Provided below is an overview of key concepts that I focus on early in my “Bold and Controlled” workshop. In addition to demonstrating and discussing processes, I facilitate a guided experiential exercise on the first day. I have found that when participants actually feel and experience some of the conditions I’m describing, it carries them toward understanding some important water/pigment dynamics that are occurring. In addition, they often see how they are unknowingly and repeatedly impairing their efforts. 


For many years I structured my watercolor workshops in a rather traditional way that went something like this: 1) Intro, materials and palette set-up discussion, 2) Planning and surface preparation 3) A painting demonstration with discussion of how and why I am doing certain things along the route, 4) participant painting time with round-robin instruction. Each day of course, we address a new important concept; value, color harmony options, and maybe unique approaches or ideas for subject development.  

While there was nothing overtly wrong with this approach, too many students left at the end of the week still frustrated with the wet-into-wet approach; excited about certain aspects of the week but still a bit defeated in practice. They were not coming close to the results they had hoped to achieve. Thus, I found it necessary to revamp my approach and find out how to better convey to them what they were missing. After a number of attempts, they were still washing away their shapes, muddying their color, and mixing weak pigment pools on the palette; in short feeling neither bold, nor controlled! 

I decided that a new “day one” would dawn. My students would no longer create a rice paddy on their paper that floated away all their shapes. They would pick up rich moist pigment on their brushes (no more hardened tiny balls of paint in their palettes regardless of their stinginess). And, I was going to give them a visual model of how to understand and control the water/pigment dynamics from the start. This would relate to their palette color mixtures, the loading of the brush, and the wetness of paper surface. We would spend day one getting this down before moving on to all of the other complexities and topics involved in making great art. This was no small order. Read on and follow me through three of the key concepts of the new “day one”. 

  1. Proper Surface Preparation (AKA: the phrase “Wet-Into-Wet” is a Myth). Consistently setting up the ground and getting the paper to the proper level of dampness before painting is a big factor in success. Cotton Rag paper takes time to fully saturate. My rule of thumb is 15-20 minutes of heavily brushing or sponging water on BOTH sides of the paper while it rests on slanted Gatorboard (around a 15-20degree angle).  This will usually get you to the fully saturated place you need to be. I find that most still want to rush the process, as we are always anxious to begin. This a good place to introduce the more meditative mindset that watercolor seems to require of painters. Relax and consciously slowdown in this phase that you want to speed through! Once fully saturated the paper has no bubbles, quickly flops back to the Gatorboard when lifted, and is ready for phase two. 


Here is where we dispel the myth. I always try and achieve a consistent dampness, not wetness with the paper prior to painting. Surface water can be lifted off lightly with a paper towel, or with a clean lint-free rolled terry towel. Do not apply much pressure to the surface in this process, as you don’t want to remove moisture within the body of the paper, only the surface glisten. When touching the paper with the back of your fingers the surface should feel damp. At this point, I suggest stapling the paper about ¼” from the edge of the Gatorboard with staples placed 1.5-2” apart all around the paper’s edge. If you follow this rather tedious prep description, you are ready to move forward with no backwards glances and can focus on the fun painting to come. The phrase Wet-into-Wet in my view, is often responsible for conditioning painters to begin on a surface that is far too wet. Let’s substitute the phrase Damp-into-Damp, for that is far more often the condition that will give us success. Keep in mind, this very quality of dampness is what creates the beautiful blends and gradations as we apply watercolor to the surface in a controlled manner. 

2) Achieving a pigment/water mix of the correct concentration to achieve our desired effect.  This refers to what mixture(s) we prepare on our palette and also what we pick up with our brush prior to moving to the paper surface. On this topic, I find too many painters err in the following ways: dried out pigments; mixing too small a working puddle of color for the area(s) they hope to cover; diluting palette pigment with too much water; and finally, loading far too much water versus pigment in the fibers of their brush. Stroke after stroke, they slowly and methodically flood their surface without awareness.  

3) Learning to observe and control the water content of the loaded brush, and the saturation level of the paper as we place our mixtures on the surface.

Just as Goldilocks discovered, there is a porridge for every intended purpose that is “just right”. I help students experience this in a hands on manner with an exercise called “True North” (described in the Wetness Compass model below).  It is important to see, feel and apply a correct mixture of proper pigment concentration on our perfect damp paper described above in order to understand the possibilities that await you. I prepare a large dense pool of a single pigment that has a wide value range, capable of going from very light to quite dark in value. Ultramarine or Prussian blue are examples of such. I also take great care to demonstrate how to load the brush, pull off excess water at the base of the fibers, and transfer this rich color to the paper with one long, slow, smooth stroke. Everyone in my class, one by one, comes up and paints a “True North” power stroke with my guidance using a very nice 1” sable flat brush that I provide.  This provides what I call a touchstone experience: they have just established a bold middle value shape that stays put on damp paper. If water was properly controlled in the brush, the edges of the stroke are slightly soft, but do not bleed or dissipate. For whatever reasons, I find this single experience often redefines their perspective on what painting with watercolor should feel like. Honestly, watching participant reactions during this exercise is one of my favorite moments of teaching.  

 A few of you reading this may be moving to the “Yes, …but.” side of the fence? A painting is complex! We use many differing pigment and water concentrations to achieve a variety of shapes and effects, and to achieve value and color goals that we have planned for.  This is true. Now we move on to a model that will enable them to reproduce or alter this single experience in a variety of ways.  Over time, this results in the ability to approach a landscape, abstraction, or any subject for that matter, in a confident and successful manner.TrueNorthSamuraiSteveNewhouse

With the True North stroke above, we have discovered how to achieve a beautiful and bold middle value shape by creating a certain set of conditions. But, we need the capability to shift gears or deviate from our touchstone in order to build a complete painting. Unless of course, we want a painting of all strong middle value and white paper. My final goal on day one is to give students a tool that will enable them to visualize how to move forward through a painting using what they just experienced as the frame of reference.  

I outline four basic actions available to them that are described via a model I refer to as the Wet Zone Compass. In relation to wetness and pigment concentration, I would utilize each of these modes at some point in the painting of a typical landscape. We already have experienced the first of these compass points, we know what it feels like, and how to set up the conditions to create it.  Our afternoon painting lab on day one focuses on a simple abstraction developed by using each of these modes. 

  • True North – A Strong Mix of Pigment and limited water will give us our middle-value shapes.  I point out that while there is often a “value” parallel in relation to this wetness model, this depends upon the inherent value range of the pigment chosen 
  •  East – Wetter Stroke with Less Pigment –  A sky or a foreground with strong light hitting the surface might be good examples of “going east”.  My analogy and reminder of this option is that our East coast is often much more humid, a wetter environment, than out West. East conditions often occur early in the painting process, as the sun rises here first! An example I demonstrate of moving East is a relatively wet, atmospheric sky using a warm underpainting with just enough pigment to tone the surface, then followed by a slightly stronger blue overtop of similar wetness.  
  • West – As we move to our West option, we think in terms of strengthening the pigment in the mix significantly, and reducing the water. To generalize, this action is usually reserved for the mid-point of a painting at the earliest, and typically comes more in to play in the later or finishing stages as we choose to intensify color or deepen value in certain areas. An example I use in demonstration of moving West would be in achieving a deep value blue-green band of Ponderosa pines flanking a Montana hillside.  So, stronger pigment, less water in the mix, and often by point in the painting process where West mode is called for, we have a less damp, maybe even dry surface. I am able to produce the necessary contrasts and hard-edge shapes as needed, by going West.  
  • South – Ah, the mysterious South. What could “going South” possibly involve? Generally speaking, when we refer to a painting going South we are likely not too happy about what is going on. I use this directional reference to remind painters that we can not only create shape and color, we can remove and alter it during or after the process. For whatever reasons, I see this as an underutilized option, or in this model, Compass direction. If we have mistakenly moved too far East, we can remove wetness with a damp brush and careful “lifting out”. We can create directional movement and contrast in a “too uniform” sky or foreground via the same process. Too often, we only think of lifting out color or wetness as a repair tool for an area that has been overworked, or when we have reached a certain level of dissatisfaction. I try and demonstrate that the South options, can serve as creative tools in the same vein as placing color with a brush.  


The above process and model as described may sound a bit complex and challenging to envision and implement. I debated if isolating this aspect of the watercolor learning curve was warranted, or if it fell into the category of overthinking; too cerebral of an undertaking. But, I took the risk because I felt too much frustration from my participants who were investing in my workshop. Fast forward past five years of trial, error and revisions on my part from inception: feedback tells me that it is quite helpful for most, and sometimes very enlightening for a few. They certainly aren’t transformed overnight into water control artists, but there are often a number of a-ha experiences much earlier in the week. If nothing else as we move into the concepts of value, shapes and color harmony as the week progresses, they at least know why their efforts are not coming to fruition. This alone imparts a bit more confidence and a willingness to continue. I enjoy overhearing conversations during our painting labs in vein of, “I went too far East in my mixture and my mountain washed away”.  


So, think about getting out your compass and set your bearings on True North! The best learning models are personalized. Mine grew out of an affection for the outdoors bordering on obsession, thus the compass was meaningful and easily remembered. When struggling with nuanced processes, one of the best things we can do is to provide ourselves with a simplified frame of reference, an underlying bone structure in a sense. This enables us to slowly layer on more complexity as we get more comfortable with process. Test my model or better yet, create one of your own! 

Everything depends on the lenses through which we view the world. By putting on new lenses, we can see things that would otherwise remain invisible.”
Parker J. Palmer


Wes’s “10 favorite Color Harmony Choices” handout (for download)

There is no shortage of information and “attack plans” when considering color choices that will contribute to both the Unity and Harmony design qualities of a painting. The more one can educate themselves about the nuances of color management the better. However, this can be an overwhelming task. I have charted my ten favorite approaches that help me ensure color harmony and help keep me on track once I have decided on the mood I hope to set with a painting. Remember, color choices most closely reflect emotions, and matching the approach with the mood I hope to set is important. I think of these choices as a quiver of arrows, and after considering my subject matter and the tone I hope to set carefully, I then only have to pick the proper arrow! Links to download the PDFs of these handouts are below the images.


color harmony handout 2

PDF Download Links:



Wes Waugh 2-Day Watercolor Workshop at Florence Thomas Art School May 19-20, 2017

Instructional_Materials_BrushRazorCorkTime: 9:00am – 4:00 pm (session begins at 9 am, 1 hour lunch 12:00-1:00pm)

Suggested Level 1-2 : Experience helpful, but not necessary

Overview: Morning sessions and demonstration will focus on many of the technical aspects of the wet into wet approach as well as the suggested goals and mindset that leads to success with this method. A later morning guided activity will allow participants to directly experience some of these issues and practices with “brush in hand”.

The afternoons will proceed with a painting lab designed to follow the lead of the morning demonstrations. Subject reference material as well as a template will be available or participants may provide their own subject materials to work from. Wes will offer individual assistance and guidance as questions and problems arise, and will make the best effort possible to rotate among the students and address their individual need and help them critique their work and assess progress. For more info, pricing and scheduling contact Florence School at info below:

Kathleen Janowiak, Executive Director / Phone: 336-846-3827) / Address: 10 S. Jefferson Ave, West Jefferson, NC 28694 Mailing Address: PO Box 865, West Jefferson, NC 28694 / Email: florenceartschool@gmail.com

Demo & Afternoon Workshop for High Country Watermedia Society – July 9th 2016

Morning Drama Grandfather Profile

Morning Drama Grandfather Profile

Wes Waugh, well known watercolor artist in the High Country, will be the guest demo and workshop artist for the High Country Watermedia Society meeting on Saturday, July 9, at Cheap Joe’s Art Stuff in Boone, NC. The meeting begins at 9:30 a.m. which includes coffee, a short general meeting and an art demonstration until noon. The workshop begins at 1 p.m. and runs until 4 p.m


Upcoming Workshop Opportunities


Here are the currently scheduled workshops for 2017-2018 I anticipate a few more opportunities to be added for Fall 2017 so keep checking back!

SOLD OUT  (with waiting list)   Cheap Joe’s April 30-May 4th, 2018 / Painting Bold and Controlled with Watercolor

Wes Waugh Workshops are designed for groups and organizations to address desired skill levels, time frames, and unique considerations or areas of focus desired.  Wes’s teaching philosophy emphasizes three components in growing as an artist:
  • developing an understanding of the materials, tools and physical characteristics of the medium
  • understanding the principles and elements of design relative to painting
  • building a unique relationship with your subject matter (or conceptual approach) that allows for an individualized and expressive result.
These components are:
  • interrelated, learning one enhances learning the others
  • prioritized differently in process depending upon the person (and personality
  • learned cumulatively over time

Last but not least, working together should be enjoyable and strike a balance between serious focus, fun and good humor.

(Has Occurred)  Helena, Montana Art Center / July 8th & 9th 2017

Wes will conduct a two-day Wet-in-Wet Watercolor Workshop in beautiful Helena, Montana. The studio workshop will be held at Montana Wild / Spring Meadow Lake Education Center. Contact Janet Olson Workshop Coordinator for more info as the date approaches.

(Has Occurred)  Wes Waugh 2-day Watercolor Workshop at Florence Thomas Art School, West Jefferson, N.C. / May 19-20th

Time: 9:00am – 4:00 pm (session begins at 9 am, 1 hour lunch 12:00-1:00pm)

Suggested Level 1-2 : Experience helpful, but not necessary

Overview: Morning sessions and demonstration will focus on many of the technical aspects of the wet into wet approach as well as the suggested goals and mindset that leads to success with this method. A later morning guided activity will allow participants to directly experience some of these issues and practices with “brush in hand”.

The afternoons will proceed with a painting lab designed to follow the lead of the morning demonstrations. Subject reference material as well as a template will be available or participants may provide their own subject materials to work from. Wes will offer individual assistance and guidance as questions and problems arise, and will make the best effort possible to rotate among the students and address their individual need and help them critique their work and assess progress. For more info, pricing and scheduling contact Florence School at info below:

Kathleen Janowiak, Executive Director / Phone: 336-846-3827) / Address: 10 S. Jefferson Ave, West Jefferson, NC 28694 Mailing Address: PO Box 865, West Jefferson, NC 28694 / Email: florenceartschool@gmail.com

What to Expect from a Wes Waugh Watercolor Workshop

WesWaughCJWorkshop-BlogInvesting in a multi-day painting workshop is a big deal. It creates a sense of excitement and commitment, requires a decent amount of your hard-earned money, and usually is accompanied by some anxiety. You hope it will be worth it and that there is a payoff. You may have heard a bit about the instructor from friends or acquaintances, his or her demeanor, style of teaching, and you may be drawn to the artwork they create. I think it is also important to delve a bit deeper in asking the question, “what are my personal and artistic goals for a workshop and does this one seem like a good fit”?

WesWorkshopBlogIn this post I would like to provide potential participants and interested groups with some information regarding what a Wes Waugh workshop is (and is not), and also what to expect in terms of the experience and workflow.  I do have the ability to customize workshops to some degree for groups or particular settings, but my general mode of instruction will always focus more on process and concepts than in teaching technique using guided step-by-step instructions. I will certainly discuss technique during demos, and there will be conversation and Q & A regarding the nuts and bolts of pigments, materials, brushes and brushwork, etc. as time allows. My philosophy is that much information regarding these elements of painting is available and suitable for home experimentation as well as great fodder for night-stand reading. Workshop time is best spent being engaged and observing, thinking and experiencing!

samurai watercolor boyMy primary goal in teaching is to encourage participants to think like an artist, and to think of themselves as an artist. The personal and intellectual challenge of creating a successful painting is at the core of what this game is about. For me, combining all of these tangible components of painting with good decision making, emotional involvement, and creative critical thinking is highly enjoyable. In fact, it is the reason I am passionate about painting, and teaching. Following a technique-based model may provide you with a short-term payoff and some impressive paint-handling skills. Following a model of learning concepts and focusing on process will provide you with the opportunity to follow your passions and become an artist. Over the years of teaching workshops, I certainly have had participants in both categories. Though I claim no responsibility, I have two former participants who are now nationally acclaimed watercolorists. Guess which pathway they chose to follow?

WorkshopPaletteBlogDoing all of this art-making IS complex, and we often arrive at the job site with an extremely unrealistic idea of the time it will require of us. This is a factor I openly acknowledge and will encourage participants to embrace this reality rather than to fight against it. Expecting too much too soon is always self-defeating. It will also greatly reduce your enjoyment of learning to paint. I will encourage you to slow-down and to develop your “critiquing eye” while removing your “critical eye”. The lenses we choose to view our experience through are very important!

Plein Air Montana

Typically, workshop participants arrive a bit preoccupied with some of the following anxieties:

  • Do I have the proper materials? I am probably missing something important!
  • Can I do this (probably not)? His/her painting approach is so different than what I am used to.
  • Will I be at a similar level as others in the class (thus, beginning immediate comparisons)?
  • What will I have accomplished by week’s end (expectation of positive results=successful product)?

Acknowledging these anxieties and addressing them early on allows us to quickly move beyond them and get down to business!

Instructional_Materials_BrushRazorCorkBy the weeks end, things will begin to fuse together regarding some very important processes and design-oriented concepts. You will actually participate in some guided experiences during the week to get a feeling for them, as well as reading about them. A few are initially hard to grasp, and some require patience, practice and keen observation. I give homework. We also laugh and have fun to soften the information overload and to ease the anxieties.

If you are still interested, read on as I give you a sample of how the typical workshop week progresses.

Instruction1_WetBrushMontanaDays 1-2 / We will identify and address 3 specific problems that painters consistently struggle with in the beginning phases: 1) proper preparation of your surface, 2) controlling the water in your brush and 3) Pigment concentration in your mixture. I see students consistently rush the prep process (to get to the fun part of painting), unknowingly flood their paper to create a “rice paddy” which floats away their shapes and clean color, and then over-brush the result in an attempt to clean up the problems. You have a muddy mess! I will help you understand why, and how to avoid this in future attempts. Also, you must understand how to develop the pigment mixtures in order to create the effects you desire. Too much water and not enough color will not give you the middle value, foundational shapes that you need. These shapes typically provide the bones that you develop the painting around.




Now we know solutions and what to try and avoid, and will move forward with some practice abstracts that will help us to put these skills in to place without the pressure of producing a painting.



I will help students identify four different wetness modes, that will also correspond with the value (light and dark contrast) scales we need to be able to reproduce for successful paintings. If this all sounds too technical, take heart, it is quite simple and I see many students have an “ah-ha” experience after these demos and discussions.

Instructional_Materials_CompassHandoutI have found that many watercolor resources (books and instructors) move through the above “wet dynamics” rather superficially if at all. It is easy to take this approach, because it is a bit tedious and challenging to clearly explain. It is easy to move on too quickly to value, color and the compositional components of painting, as they are more tangible concepts. The problem here, is that most students still don’t have the wet-into-wet foundational skills under their belt. They wash their shapes away, get frustrated, and then state “I’ve tried it, and watercolor doesn’t like me”. I will provide you with a unique learning model that I have developed to help you implement and more importantly, remember, the above information and processes.


Days 2-4 / In the second half of the workshop, we will broach some of the more composition and structural aspects of making successful paintings such as Value, Color Harmony, and Design Tools & Rules. These fall more in the left-brain category, but are extremely important for us to tackle in order to grow and progress. We will balance this with discussion of “subject” and your emotional and personal connections in making your choices. I will show you various tools and processes I use in navigating these waters, and share appropriate helpful handouts





During the entire workshop, you will have ample time in “Painting Lab” to experiment with all of our topics and I will roam around answering questions, offering encouragement and occasionally  conducting mini-demos. During the second half of the week we will work on some simple landscapes that allow you to put all of these new skills in to practice.







Day 5 / If a Fifth Day (Friday) is desired, I usually demonstrate some mixed media and alternative approaches to traditional watercolor, or a specialty topic desired by the group can be addressed if planned in advance, i.e. painting trout flies, rocks and boulders, etc. Critique time is also an option as desired by the group. Typically, we end earlier on day 5, providing participants with the time to pack up and travel as required. It is also the case that four intensive days with me calls for a bit lighter ending day informationally!


I expect you to leave at the end of the week fully charged up to paint as much as possible and to grow as an artist in ways you would have never imagined before! You may even be surprised with the work you ARE able to leave the workshop with, just by paying close attention, working hard, and removing that “critical eye”!


Plein Air Montana with Joe Miller and Wes Waugh


This gallery contains 15 photos.

Wes and Joe recently had the opportunity to conduct a three-day plein air watercolor workshop on one of the largest privately owned ranches in Montana. The Sieben Ranch, a working sheep ranch owned and operated by the Baucus family, opened … Continue reading